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古代的暂隐士、真隐士和假隐士(2)

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陶弘景终身不娶,于读书,既勤勉又广博,“一事不知以为深耻”,善棋琴,工草隶。年未及二十,齐高帝(萧道成)任宋相时引为诸王侍读,除奉朝请,“虽在朱门,闭影不交外物,雅以披阅为务”。由于胸藏万卷,朝廷各种仪典故事,都向他咨询。因家贫求做县宰不遂,在齐武帝(萧赜)永明十年脱朝服挂神武门,辞官而去,隐居在葛洪的家乡句容的句曲山,自号华阳陶隐居。陶弘景辞别京师时,朝中公卿贵胄都聚集到征虏亭为他送行。车马填咽,场面宏大,摆设极尽奢华,人称“宋齐以来未有斯事”。他出身儒士,明阴阳五行、山川地理、医术本草等等。既好道家的神仙之说,耽于炼丹服药,辟谷导引这一套;晚年又归心释教,受戒奉佛;似欲融儒道释三家而为一。《南史》本传说他“性爱山水,每经涧谷,必坐卧其间,吟咏盘桓,不能已己”。他对门人说:“吾见朱门广厦,虽识其华乐,而无欲往之心。望高岩,瞰大泽,知此难立止,自桓欲就之。”又说他“特爱松风,庭院皆植松,每闻其响,欣然为乐。有时独游泉石,望见者以为仙人”。

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