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中国古代的地方官系统简介(3)

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行省下设路、府州、县。路总管府设达鲁花赤总管各一员,散府设知府或府尹,州设州尹、同知,县设县尹,等等。

明初沿袭元制,后改行省为承宣布政使司,简称布政司。明共设置了十三个承宣布政使司,设布政使司(掌民政、财政)、按察使(掌刑法和监察)、都指挥使(掌兵)。有战事时派朝臣出巡地方,处理军务,称为巡抚。

如果战事牵连数省,巡抚不能解决,就派总督处理。巡抚或总督只是临时性的,不算正式的地方官员。

清代总督和巡抚才成为固定的封疆大吏,合称督抚。清代设总督八人,总揽省或两三省的军民要政。巡抚是省一级的最高长官。布政使就只管财政和人事,成了督抚的属员。

明清一省分为数道,道下有府有州府、州的长官称知府知州。其佐府有同知、通判等,州有州同、州判等。州下则有县,长官称知县。

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